2. (b)

My structure is similar to other cells however cells however there are specializations that helps in my overall function. I have a brain(nucleus) which contain genetic instructions e.g codons for necessary proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum is connected to my nucleus. I have a rough ER as smooth ER. Rough ER are studed with ribosom which synthesises mRNA to from proteins. Smooth ER are involved in lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification.

In addition I have several other organelles which helps in the overall function of the cell. Golgi apparatus packages and distributes molecules, lysosomes are my digestive system, edosomes sort molecules, peroxisomes breaks down fatty acid chains and mitochondria produces energy.

Because of my specific function I pay close attention to energy production. I have more mitochondrion than other cells which produce ATP(energy molecule). Specific pathways are regulated according the demand of the organism for energy. For example glycolysis, gluconeogenysis, citric acid cycle.

My entire tissue contracts by means of specific ion and hormone pathways. The brain sends a signal along neurons. Acetyl choline causes ions to diffuse in and out of a neurotransmitter junction. An action potential causes the muscle to contract.

2. (a)

As mentioned before I am a myocyte. I was born from the process of mitosis but my history predates millions of years ago. My ancestors engulfed certain cyanobacteria but they were noboron ken down. Instead they(mitochondria & chloroast) worked symbiotically with the cell providing energy and photosynthesis.

My purpose is to provide energy via my organellmitochondrion) mainly for movement. I carry out several reactions and pathways to produce an energy molecule; ATP.

When I become older I would like to possess many mitochondrion for the purpose of providing as much energy for my muscle group as possible. I would also like to multiply via mitosis in order to produce more of myself so we can work in unison providing an effective dose of ATP moor my organism’s movement.

1. (b)

I am a muscle cell(myocyte) found in skelatal muscle of a mouse and I am part of the muscle tissue. I am found on the upper thigh region of the mouse’s leg. Several of us come together to form a muscle fibre. Muscle fibers are packed into a sheet  of fascile. Several fascile then merge together(epimysium) and enclosed in a thick membrane called perimysium. This entire muscle dis connected to a tendon.

1. (a)

Model organisms are species that have been studied with depth mainly because they are easily bred in a laboratory environment and has some specific environmental advantages.Model organisms are involved in scientific research because of four reasons:

-rapid development with short life cycles

-small size of adult



Concerning the first three bullets, rapid development with short life cycles, size and availability prove essential in the accommodation and demand for the organism. Being easily controlled/influenced scientists and researchers are easily manipulate organisms early.

Multiple Choice 2-Carbohydrates

Multiple Choice Paper- Carbohydrates


1. Which of the following substances plays a structural role in plant cell?

A. Glycogen

B. Fructose

C. Glucose

D. Cellulose

E. Furanose


2. Which is not classified as a class of carbohydrate?

A. Monosaccharide

B. Glucose

C. Polysaccharide

D. Oligosaccharide

E. Disaccharide


3. D- glucose can be described an as an ;

A. Aldohexose

B. Aldotriose

C. Aldopentose

D. Ketohexose

E. Ketotriose


4. Which of the following monosaccharaides DOES NOT contain an asymmetric centre?

A. Glyceraldehyde

B. D- Fructose

C. Dihydroyxyacetone

D. 2- Deoxy- D- Ribose

E. D- Ribose


5. A monosaccharide is given the name D is amer  when :

A. The –OH group on the reference carbon is on the right in a projection formula that has the carbonyl carbon at the top.

B. The –OH group on the reference carbon is on the left in a projection formula that has the carbonyl group at the top.

C. The –H group on the reference carbon is on the right in a projection formula that has the carbonyl group at the bottom.

D. The molecule contain an amino group.

E. The molecule is optically active.


Answer questions 6-10 using the following choices:

(1) Glycogen    (2) Starch    (3) Glycolysis    (4) Glucose    (5) Cellulose

6. When there is high glucose concentration in the blood the pancreas releases insulin to convert the glucose to:

A. (5)

B. (2)

C. (1)

D. (1) & (2)

E. (1), (2), (4) & (5)



7. Which of the following is a polymer of B-D glucose?

A. (3)

B. (1)

C. (2)

D. (5)

E. (4)


8. Which metabolic pathway did the earliest organization used in releasing energy in the form of AT from glucose?

A. (1)

B. (2)

C. (3)

D. (4)

E. (5)


9. What is the energy source(s) of the brain and nervous system?

A. (1)

B. (5)

C. (4)

D. (4) & (5)

E. (1), (2), (4) & (5)




10. Which part of the following are used for storage in plants and animals?

A. (1) & (2)

B. (4) & (5)

C. (1) & (4)

D. (1), (2), (4) & (5)

E.(1), (2), (4) & (5)


11. Two sugars that differ only in the configuration around one carbon atom is called:

A. Anomer

B. Epimer

C. Enantiomer

D. Fischer Projection

E. Hemacetal


12. The formation of ring structures in which the carbonyl group has formed a covalent bond with the oxygen of an –OH group along the chain is/are called alan:

A. Hemiacetel Alone

B. Hemilcetel Alone

C. Anamer

D. Hemiacetel/ Hemlcetal

E. Epimer




13. Which of the following best portrays the stereochemistry of the glucose molecule ?

A. Fischer Projections

B. Haworth Perspective Formulas

C. Conformational ‘Chair’ Form

D. Conformational ‘Boat’ Form

E. Ball and Stick


14. Which of the following is not a 6 carbon sugar?

A. D- glyceraldehyde

B. D-allose

C. D- glucose

D. D- galactose

E. D- altrose

Multiple Choice based on Cells

Multiple Choice Questions based on Cells


1. The aqueous\solution part of the cell is known as:

A. cytoplasm

B. cytosol

C. cytochrome

D. cytoskeleton

E. plasma


2. Ribosomes function as to:

A. synthesizes lipid molecules and produce hormones

B. support the cell

C. transports substances to other organelles and out of the cell

D. produces ATP

E. synthesize protein molecules


3. Prokaryotes possess the following organelles:

A. nucleus

B. 80S ribosomes

C. flagella and nucleus

D. 70S ribosomes

E. mitochondria



4. Answer numbers 5-10 based on the answers given below:

        I.            Endoplasmic Reticulum

      II.            Cytoskeleton

    III.            DNA wrapped around proteins called histones

    IV.            Cell wall composed of cellulose

      V.            Cell wall composed of murein

    VI.            DNA wound around tetramers of HU protein


5. Prokaryotic cells contain:

A. (I)

B. (V)

C. (ii) & (V)

D. (I) & (V)

E. (I), (II) & (IV)


6. Eukaryotic cells are composed of:

A. (IV)

B. (V)

C. (II) & (V)

D. (II), (IV) & (V)

E. (I), (II), (III), (IV)


7. The DNA form in prokaryotic cells is:

A. (VI)

B. (V)

C. (IV)

D. (III)

E. (II)



8. The cell wall of eukaryotic cells is/are composed of:

A. (V) alone

B. (IV) alone

C. (V) & (IV)

D. (III)

E. (V), (IV) & (III)


9. The filamentous network that provides structure and organization to the cytoplasm; this best describes:

A. (I)

B. (III)

C. (V)

D. (IV)

E. (II)


10.                                     synthesizes carbohydrates, lipids, hormones, proteins, produces antibodies and transfers various substances to locations in the cell.

A. (VI)

B. (I)

C. (V)

D. (III)

E. (II)


11. Proteasomes functions is/are:

(1) Protein Synthesis                                             (2) Biosynthesis of proteins

(3) Protein Degradation                                       (4) Protein Synthesis Within The Cells

A. (1)

B. (2)

C. (1) & (2)

D. (2) & (3)

E. (3) & (4)


12. Which plant cell organelle(s), other than the nucleus contains its own DNA?

A. Golgi   Apparatus

B. Ribosomes  

C. Mitochondria Alone

D. Mitochondria & Chloroplast

E. Chloroplast alone


13. Which toe (2) organelles are invaded in protein degradation ?

A. Proteasomes and Lysosomes

B. Proteasomes and Ribosomes

C. Lysosomes and Ribosomes

D. Peroxisome and Lysosomes

E. Peroxisome and Ribosomes

14. The nucleus function is :

A. Production of DNA

B. Production of RNA 

C. Production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

D. Production of transfer RNA (tRNA)

E. Control cell’s activities


15. Which part of the plant cell is responsible for photophosphorylation (light driven ATP synthesis) ?

A. Thylakoids

B. Mitochondria

C. Stroma

D. Inner Membrane

E. Outer Membrane

That’s it guys, time to put the fun aside and get down to the hardcore facts! Upcomming are hardcore facts, opinions and theories circulating the world of biochemistry! 😀